Article 1 : NRC (addition to previous points)

1.      3.3 crore people were to submit the documents.

2.      The final draft list of citizens left 40 lakh residents of Assam.

3.      Political parties and Supreme courts response:
               a)It is only a draft andthere is no reason for panic.

b)Everyone will be given an opportunity to prove his or her citizenship in accordance with law before any action is taken.

Few reasons why the people wereleft out?

1.      People thought that since Supreme court was monitoring the process the process would be transparent but the draft doesn’t say so.

2.      The non-transparent family tree verification process.

3.      The arbitrary rejection of gram panchayat residency certificates (women were affected the most).

4.      Parents being on draft list and children being left out.

5.      Hasty work to meet the dead line.

(while preparing the NRC with deadline was more important than ensuring legal clarity over citizenship?)


The judicial angle:

Feb 2017:

The Manowara v/s Union of India case

The Guwahati high court declared that certificates issued by the Gram panchayat couldn’t be relied on by the residents to seek inclusion in NRC.


Dec 2017:

The Supreme Court (SC) opined that the certificates by Panchayat could be relied upon, provided, documents themselves had been approved in court.


Thus the matter was unsettled and each person will now have to prove his linkages before a forum.


Immediate consequence of the no inclusion:

1.      Lose right to vote

2.      New problem of sudden loss of Indian citizenship with no recourse of in sight.

3.      If people are unable to prove their Indian citizenship, what will the SC direct the government to do?

a.      To push them out?

b.      To wash the hands offthe issue.


Fodder points:

Views of eminent personalities about citizen ship.

1.      BR. Ambedkar with respect to provision relating to citizenship in constitution said that it caused the Drafting Committee the most headache .Multiple drafts were worked ,rejected. Finally article 5 was inserted.


2.      Sardar Valla Bhai Patel opined that India’s constitution making process and citizenship clause as going to be scrutinised all over the world.

3.      Niraja Gopal an expert said that the scrutiny was probably because the Indian Nationalism during freedom struggle had not attempted to define itself on exclusive racial or ethnic basis.



70 years later, Indian approach to citizenship is once again going to be scrutinised by world.



Article 2 : Oxytocin

Why in news?

Union Health Ministry’s ban on retail sale and private manufacturing of oxytocin (from September 1st).Government plans to allow a single public sector unit to manufacture the drug.


Why should retail sale be banned?

(Positive move)

1.      Misuse of the drug in dairy industry.

Reason:Oxytocin stimulates lactation in cattle therefore the farmers inject it indiscriminately to increase milk production.

2.      This led to many unlicensed manufacturing units.

3.      Oxytocin may lead to infertility in dairy animals. There is sometruth in it.

4.      Oxytocin is linked to MASTITIS (painful inflammation of udder.

Milk consumers worry about exposure to it through dairy products.


Bottom line: Government ban is motivated by misuse of the drug.




Ban is bad because:

1.      (uses of oxytocin)
Oxytocin is the synthetic version of human hormone and a life saver for women.

2.      Doctors use it to

a.      Induce labour in pregnant women.

b.      To stem postpartum bleeding.

3.      WHO recommends it as a drug of choice in Post-partumhaemorrhage.

4.      National Institute of Nutrition said that oxytocin content in theBuffalo milk didn’t alter with injections.

5.      In 2015 Lok Sabha National Dairy Research Institute said there was no evidence for oxytocin induced infertility.

6.      45,000 Indian women die due to causes related to child birth each year.


Karnataka Antibiotics and pharmacy limited vested the duty to produce oxytocin was asked to cap the price at rs.16.56/ml.However some private companies now sell it at rs.4/ml.

The monopoly production by a single public sector unit will remove low price options from market.

The ban may lead to drug shortages and price hikes.

However, ill-effects of oxytocin are real a ban is not the answer.


Right approach would be

a.      To strengthenregulation .

b.      Crack down on illegal production.


Conclusion :

Such a move could benefit the cattle but put lives of women at risk.